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Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England which is part of the city of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, 47 miles (75 km) south of London.
Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age, Roman and Anglo-Saxon periods. The ancient settlement of “Brighthelmstone” was documented in the Domesday Book (1086). The town’s importance grew in the Middle Agesas the Old Town developed, but it languished in the early modern period, affected by foreign attacks, storms, a suffering economy and a declining population. Brighton began to attract more visitors following improved road transport to London and becoming a boarding point for boats travelling to France. The town also developed in popularity as a health resort for sea bathing as a purported cure for illnesses.
In the Georgian era, Brighton developed as a fashionable seaside resort, encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent, later King George IV, who spent much time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion in the Regency era. Brighton continued to grow as a major centre of tourism following the arrival of the railways in 1841, becoming a popular destination for day-trippers from London. Many of the major attractions were built in the Victorian era, including the Metropole Hotel (now Hilton) Grand Hotel, the West Pier, and the Brighton Palace Pier. The town continued to grow into the 20th century, expanding to incorporate more areas into the town’s boundaries before joining the town of Hove to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove in 1997, which was granted city status in 2000. Today, Brighton and Hove district has a resident population of about 288,200 and the wider Brighton and Hove conurbation has a population of 474,485 (2011 census).
Brighton’s location has made it a popular destination for tourists, renowned for its diverse communities, quirky shopping areas, large cultural, music and arts scene and its large LGBT population, leading to its recognition as the “unofficial gay capital of the UK”.Brighton attracted 7.5 million day visitors in 2015/16 and 4.9 million overnight visitors,and is the most popular seaside destination in the UK for overseas tourists.Brighton has also been called the UK’s “hippest city”, and “the happiest place to live in the UK”.
The Royal Pavilion, a Grade I listed building,is a former royal palace built as a home for the Prince Regent during the early 19th century, under the direction of the architect John Nash. It is notable for its Indo-Saracenic architecture and Oriental interior. Other Indo-Saracenic buildings in Brighton include the Sassoon Mausoleum, now, with the bodies reburied elsewhere, in use as a chic supper club.
Brighton Marine Palace and Pier (long known as the Palace Pier) opened in 1899; it features a funfair, restaurants and arcade halls.The West Pier was built in 1866 and is one of only two Grade I listed piers in the United Kingdom; it has been closed since 1975. For some time it was under consideration for restoration, but two fires in 2003, and other setbacks, led to these plans being abandoned. The British Airways i360 observation tower, located at the shore end of the West Pier, opened on 4 August 2016.At 162 metres (531.49 feet) high, and with an observation pod rising to 138 metres (452.75 feet), the i360 is Britain’s highest observation tower outside London – taller even than the London Eye.
Brighton Clock Tower, built in 1888 for Queen Victoria’s jubilee,stands at the intersection of Brighton’s busiest thoroughfares.
Volk’s Electric Railway runs along the inland edge of the beach from Brighton Pier to Black Rock and Brighton Marina. It was created in 1883 and is the world’s oldest operating electric railway.
The Grand Hotel was built in 1864. The Brighton hotel bombing occurred there. Its nighttime blue lighting is particularly prominent along the foreshore.
Brighton has a 5.4-mile (8.7 km) expanse of shingle beach, part of the unbroken 8-mile (13 km) section within the city limits Neighbouring Hove is known for its hundreds of painted timber beach huts, but brick-walled chalets are also available on Brighton seafront, especially towards Rottingdeanand Saltdean. Especially east of the Palace Pier, a flat sandy foreshore is exposed at low tide The Palace Pier section of the beach has been awarded blue flag status Part of the beach adjoining Madeira Drive, to the east of the city centre, has been redeveloped into a sports complex and opened to the public in March 2007, with courts for pursuits such as beach volleyball and ultimate Frisbee among others.
The University of Sussex, established in 1961 as the first of the plate-glass universities, is a campus research intensive university between Stanmer Park and Falmer, four miles (6 km) from the city centre. The university is home to the reputed Institute of Development Studies and the Science Policy Research Unit, amongst over 40 other established research centres, and is ranked 1st in the world for Development studies by the World University Rankings Served by frequent trains (to Falmer railway station) and 24-hour buses, it has a student population of around 17,300 student of which over a third are postgraduates.The university is currently ranked 18th in the UK and 110th in the world by the World University Rankings.
The University of Brighton, the former Brighton Polytechnic, has a student population of 20,017 of which 80% are undergraduates.The university is on several sites with additional buildings in Falmer, Moulsecoomb, Eastbourne and Hastings.
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